How To Wake Up at 5 A.M. Every Day

I thought I was destined to be a night owl forever.

I’m no stranger to reading about the benefits of waking up early or having the same sleeping routine — all of us have probably read this at some point in our lives. I’m in my final semester of university, so the past few years of my life have been absolute chaos. I have classes some days, work other days, and have free time on especially rare days. Having a routine seemed impossible.

But a few months ago, I started reading Haruki Murakami’s novels. My favorite is Norwegian Wood. Inspired by Murakami’s fascinating prose, I researched him a little.


UTAT Hits 1,800,088 Pageviews

Under The Angsana Tree As on Sunday, 30 May 2021 at 08:15 AM
Total Pageviews was 1,800,088 after 110 months (545/day) since 1st Post on 15 Apr 2009
Total Flags counted by Supercounter.com was 196 as on 30 May 2021
Supercounters: 196 Countries Counting since 30 May 2012
SimilarWeb - Global rank:2,790,278 Country rank:35,063 Category rank:90,883



Standing Tall: The Goh Chok Tong Story

Update 8 Feb 2024: Goh Chok Tong's son Goh Jin Hian found liable for losses of US$146 millions
Goh Jin Hian, CEO of Singapore's New Silkroutes Group Ltd, poses for pictures during an interview in Beijing, China, October 17, 2016. Picture taken October 17, 2016. REUTERS/Aizhu Chen (REUTERS / Reuters)

Singapore’s High Court has found Goh Jin Hian liable for $146 million in losses under his watch as director of a now-insolvent marine fuel supplying company, adding to the legal problems facing the son of former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong.

Doing his duties “would have led him to realize that the company was being defrauded,” Justice Aedit Abdullah said in published remarks dated Jan. 24 on a petition involving Inter-Pacific Petroleum Pte. The defense argued there was no such breach or causation of loss, and regardless, the company qualifies for relief from liability under the companies act. “The financial position of the company was suspect and should have primed the defendant to look further and obtain a picture of the true state of the affairs of the company and monitor what was happening within it,” the judge said. “That was his duty as a director.” “Loss was caused to the plaintiff through the transactions and drawdowns which should not have been carried out and would not have been had the defendant performed his duties,” the judge said.

The development comes amid a number of scandals in the Asian financial hub known for its zero tolerance for corruption. A separate billion-dollar money laundering probe is already shining a light on fund flows from abroad and raising questions about loopholes that enabled an alleged criminal syndicate to accumulate massive amounts of wealth. Goh, 55, served as a director of Inter-Pacific Petroleum from 2011 to 2019, Channel News Asia reported. He was among four people charged last year with false trading offenses linked to investment holding company New Silkroutes Group Ltd. They are accused of creating a “misleading appearance with respect to the price” of its securities on 31 trading days between February and August of 2018. That’s equivalent to market manipulation.

Son of Singapore’s Former Prime Minister Charged With False Trading Offenses
Goh Jin Hian, then CEO of New Silkroutes Group, photographed in September 2018

Goh Jin Hian, 
the only son of former Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong, was among four people charged Wednesday with false trading offenses, Channel News Asia reported.

The 54-year-old ex-chief executive officer of investment holding company New Silkroutes Group Ltd., Goh stands accused of conspiring with three other men linked to the firm for creating a misleading appearance of the price of its securities on 31 trading days between February and August of 2018, according to the report.

Goh is also accused of pushing up the price of the company’s securities by placing orders and executing trades using his bank investment account. He was handed 39 charges under the Securities and Futures Act, while the three other men each received 31 similar charges. Goh and the three others charged could face a jail term of up to seven years and a fine of as much as S$250,000 ($183,000), or both, on each charge.

Goh Chok Tong's son Goh Jin Hian & 3 others charged with market manipulation
Goh Jin Hian was chief executive of New Silkroutes Group from 2015 to 2020. PHOTO: SHIN MIN DAILY NEWS

The former chief executive of Singapore-listed New Silkroutes Group, Goh Jin Hian, and three other men were slapped with a total of 132 charges related to false trading offences in the State Courts on Wednesday.

The other three men charged are the healthcare and energy firm’s former chief corporate officer Kelvyn Oo Cheong Kwan and former finance director William Teo Thiam Chuan, as well as Huang Yiwen, the sole director of GTC Group, a commercial market maker that New Silkroutes had engaged. Market makers help ensure there is enough liquidity in the markets.

Goh, 54, the only son of former prime minister Goh Chok Tong, was chief executive of New Silkroutes from 2015 to 2020. In 2020, he also stepped down as non-independent and non-executive chairman of the group.

ESM Goh Chok Tong launches second part of biography titled Standing Tall
The new book takes a thematic approach to detailing key moments in Mr Goh's career as prime minister.ST PHOTO: JASON QUAH

When Mr Goh Chok Tong got a late-night call informing him that a Singapore Airlines plane had been hijacked in 1991, the then Prime Minister issued instructions calmly - then went to bed.

The response demonstrated his trust in his deputies and epitomised his leadership style, elements of which have been captured in a new book documenting Mr Goh's 14 years at the helm, from 1990 to 2004. On the SQ117 hijacking incident, Mr Goh, who retired from politics last year and is now Emeritus Senior Minister, observes in the second volume of his biography Standing Tall: "When you plan for worst-case scenarios, and when you trust the professionalism, dedication and judgment of those on the ground, you can stay calm and sleep easy."

The new book - a sequel to Tall Order published in 2018 - was officially launched on Friday (May 7) evening and takes a thematic approach to detailing key moments in Mr Goh's career as prime minister.

Standing Tall: Part 2 of Goh Chok Tong's authorised biography out this year
The second volume of Goh Chok Tong's authorised biography is titled Standing Tall: The Goh Chok Tong Years. (Photos: Facebook/Goh Chok Tong)

Former prime minister Goh Chok Tong said on Friday (Jan 22) that the second volume of his authorised biography will reach bookshelves in late April or early May.

The release of the book, titled Standing Tall: The Goh Chok Tong Years, is planned to mark his 80th birthday, Mr Goh said in a Facebook post.

"Received this galley copy of Standing Tall from publisher. Cover is being designed and photos selected. Going through text one more time to tie up loose ends," said Mr Goh.

The first volume, titled Tall Order: The Goh Chok Tong Story, was released in 2018. It tells the story of Mr Goh's life and career, from his childhood until he took office as Singapore's second prime minister in 1990, succeeding Mr Lee Kuan Yew.

Launch of Standing Tall – The Goh Chok Tong Years

Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong was the guest of honour at the launch of Standing Tall — The Goh Chok Tong Years, the second volume of the former PM Goh’s biography, on Friday (May 7). Emeritus Senior Minister (ESM) Goh hoped readers will enjoy reading his biography.

The book’s author, journalist Peh Shing Huei, said it is  “packed with drama, adventure, and also lessons for Singapore in the new millennia”. Mr Peh also penned Tall Order: The Goh Chok Tong Story, Volume 1 published in 2018. In the first volume, he told the extraordinary story of Mr Goh’s life and career over half a century, revealing how Singapore’s second Prime Minister rose through a combination of strength, wit and a political nous which many, including himself, did not know he had.

This second volume captures the transformation of Mr Goh as a political leader, evolving from a Prime Minister with a touch of naivety to a hard-nosed strategist. How he introduced some of the country’s most controversial policies, including the foreign talent scheme and formula for ministerial salaries, while advancing a kinder and gentler Singapore with the likes of MediFund and Edusave.

The Holy Goh
Often seen wearing an India-made Nehru jacket, which he found appropriate for Singapore’s air-conditioned spaces, he once quipped, “Maybe I will now start an India Fashion Fever.”

The decision by Singapore’s second (1990-2004) Prime Minister, Goh Chok Tong, to retire from politics when he is not much older than a man bidding to be the American president is significant because it is marked with grace, and thus entirely in character with the politician he was as he grew to the top job in the shadow of one of the 20th century’s towering statesmen.

Announcing his decision not to contest the forthcoming Singapore parliamentary election, Mr Goh wryly suggested that the prospect of becoming an octogenarian next year was a reason for his decision although he still felt fit.

Mr Goh’s stewardship of Singapore was perceived by many as an interim arrangement crafted by his predecessor, the legendary Lee Kuan Yew, to ensure he was not accused of nepotism if he anointed his son, the present Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, to succeed him.

How the Holy Goh got on with the Father and the Son

I know the book Tall Order Volume 1 is about Mr Goh Chok Tong’s route to prime ministership, but what I didn’t expect was a glimpse of the mental gymnastics that the late Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew put him through. Like Mr Goh, I believe all of us were caught off-guard by Mr Lee’s 1988 National Day comments about preferring that Dr Tony Tan succeed him as Prime Minister. Now, some 30 years later, we read about the shock and consternation this news was to the man whom everyone thought would be Singapore’s next Prime Minister.

“I was perplexed, stunned and dumbfounded by his revelation. You have the awkwardness of facing the big crowd after the rally. You had to be very wooden when you came out,” so Mr Goh recalled in the book, wryly using the term that the late Mr Lee had attached to him just one week after.

Mr Goh thought there could be  two reasons for Mr Lee’s public put down. Mr Lee himself had said that he wasn’t to be blamed if Mr Goh failed – because he wasn’t his first choice. Then there was the question of whether he wanted to derail the succession process by putting Dr Tan as first among equals. Or even place his son, who entered politics four years before. It’s a pity that Mr Goh never asked the man directly. But clearly, Mr Lee wasn’t ready to give up the job.

Tall Order: The Goh Chok Tong Story
Netizens mock ESM Goh as “seatwarmer Prime Minister” with doctored biography cover

Despite Emeritus Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong’s assertion that he has always known that he was not a “seatwarmer” Prime Minister (PM) as many speculate, some have mocked Singapore’s second PM with a doctored cover of his recently released authorised biography.

ESM Goh has contended with speculation that he was only installed as a “seatwarmer” since he was head of Government after founding PM Lee Kuan Yew and before Lee’s son, current PM Lee Hsien Loong, took office.

An image posted by Facebook user Constance Chew on Facebook group, Concerned Citizens Band Together for a better Singapore, shows the original “Tall Order: The Goh Chok Tong Story” title being altered to “Take Order: The Seat Warmer Story”:

read more

Goh Chok Tong facts

Goh Chok Tong (Chinese: 吴作栋; pinyin: Wú Zuòdòng) was born in Singapore on 20 May 1941 to Goh Kah Choon and Quah Kwee Hwa, who hailed from the Minnan region of Fujian province in China. He has Chinese Hokkien ancestry. Goh studied at Raffles Institution from 1955 to 1960. He was a very competitive swimmer in his younger days and was given the nickname "Bold".

Goh is married to Tan Choo Leng and they have a son and a daughter, who are twins. Their son, Goh Jin Hian, is a physician and their daughter, Goh Jin Theng, lives in London with her husband.

 Goh is a Singaporean former politician who served as Prime Minister of Singapore between 1990 and 2004, and Secretary-General of the People's Action Party between 1992 and 2004. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Marine Parade SMC between 1976 and 1988, and Marine Parade GRC between 1988 and 2020.
Prime Ministers of Singapore

Lee Kuan Yew (Appointed) Term of Office: 5 Jun 1959 - 28 Nov 1990
Goh Chok Tong (Appointed) Term of Office: 28 Nov 1990 - 12 Aug 2004
Lee Hsien Loong (Appointed) Term of Office: 12 Aug 2004 - Incumbent



Internet Explorer To Be Phased Out After 26 Years

Netizens Pay Tribute To OG Browser

Back in the 90s when computers were relatively few and far between, Internet Explorer (IE) was the default browser that everyone used.

However, as all good things come to an end, Microsoft has recently announced IE’s imminent retirement after 26 years. Many have taken to social media to reminisce about the once phenomenal internet sensation.

On Wednesday (19 May), Microsoft announced the retirement of the IE 11 desktop application.

The future of Internet Explorer on Windows 10 is in Microsoft Edge
The Internet Explorer 11 desktop application will be retired on June 15, 2022

Over the last year, you may have noticed our movement away from Internet Explorer (“IE”) support, such as an announcement of the end of IE support by Microsoft 365 online services. Today, we are at the next stage of that journey: we are announcing that the future of Internet Explorer on Windows 10 is in Microsoft Edge. Not only is Microsoft Edge a faster, more secure and more modern browsing experience than Internet Explorer, but it is also able to address a key concern: compatibility for older, legacy websites and applications. Microsoft Edge has Internet Explorer mode (“IE mode”) built in, so you can access those legacy Internet Explorer-based websites and applications straight from Microsoft Edge. With Microsoft Edge capable of assuming this responsibility and more, the Internet Explorer 11 desktop application will be retired and go out of support on June 15, 2022, for certain versions of Windows 10.

With Microsoft Edge, we provide a path to the web’s future while still respecting the web’s past. Change was necessary, but we didn’t want to leave reliable, still-functioning websites and applications behind. We’re here to help you transition to the more comprehensive browsing experience of Microsoft Edge and tell you a bit more about why we think it will address your needs, both at home and at work.

  • Improved compatibility
  • Streamlined productivity
  • Better browser security


A rare ‘Super Flower Blood Moon’ lunar eclipse

A rare ‘Super Flower Blood Moon’ lunar eclipse

Tonight, peel your eyes away from the screen and look up at the skies instead. A total lunar eclipse – termed as the ‘Super Flower Blood Moon’ – will see it turning into a shade of beautiful copper-red. This phenomenon is a rare cosmic showing of three different lunar occurrences: first, a supermoon, where the satellite’s monthly orbit brings it closest to Earth; second, a total lunar eclipse when the moon moves into the Earth’s shadow; and third, a blood moon, where the typically pearl-white orb appears dusky red to the eye during an eclipse.

According to reports, the celestial performance will take place between 4.47pm and 9.49pm, but the eclipse can only be seen in Singapore from 7.04pm. This will also be the first total lunar eclipse to happen since 2019. The ‘Flower Moon’ gets its name from ancient beliefs in the Northern Hemisphere, where it coincides with the blossoming of spring – and budding of flowers.

In a Facebook post shared by the Science Centre Observatory (SCOB), the moon will be in total eclipse from 7.04pm to 7.25pm, during which the blood moon may be observed. “This is also assuming you have a good view of the Eastern sky horizon,” it added. For the best chance to catch a sight of the phenomenon, the SCOB recommends finding an elevated spot that offers an unblocked view. Then, orientate using a mobile phone compass and face 110° clockwise from North. It added: “The alternative is to simply observe which direction the Sun is setting and observe in the opposite direction.” Be sure to tune in to this once-in-a-blue (or blood) -moon performance; the next total lunar eclipse in Singapore will take place on November 8 next year.

Happy Vesak Day 卫塞节 2021

Covid-19 crowd control measures at popular temples for Vesak Day after surge in cases
The Kwan Im Thong Hood Cho Temple in Waterloo Street will be closed on Vesak Day.PHOTO: ST FILE

Two popular temples have made adjustments to their plans for Vesak Day on May 26, following a surge in Covid-19 cases in the community over the past week.

Buddhists traditionally visit temples on the day - which commemorates the birth, enlightenment and death of Gautama Buddha - for rituals such as chanting or taking part in retreats.

Visitor bookings from May 25 at the Kong Meng San Phor Kark See Monastery in Bright Hill Road have been suspended until further notice because of "recent Covid-19 developments", a spokesman for the temple said in response to queries from The Straits Times on Tuesday (May 4).

Vesak Day (

Vesak Day in Singapore is a holy day celebrated by Buddhists. It represents the birth, the Nirvana (enlightenment) and the Parinirvana (death) of Gautama Buddha and is the most significant day of the Buddhist calendar. Vesak Day usually falls in May, on the 15th day of the fourth month of the Chinese Lunar Calendar.

On Vesak Day, temples are decorated with flags and flowers. Devoted Buddhists and many observers of the faith congregate at their temple before dawn, saffron-clad monks chant the sutras, the Buddhist flag is raised and the people sing hymns to celebrate the Buddha, the Dharma (his teachings) and the Sangha (his disciples).

Worshippers bring offerings of flowers, candles and incense to lay at the feet of the statues. These offerings demonstrate that the believers accept that life, like the offerings, is subject to decay and destruction.

read more

Buddha's Birthday
A statue of the child Gautama Buddha as depicted in his apocryphal story of birth

Buddha's Birthday (Fó Dàn Rì 佛诞日 {Simplified} 佛誕日 {Traditional} is a holiday traditionally celebrated in Mahayana Buddhism to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism. According to the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures (from Pali, meaning "three baskets"), Gautama was born in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, around the year 563 BCE, and raised in Kapilavastu.

The exact date of Buddha's Birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars and is primarily celebrated in Baisakh month of the Buddhist calendar and the Bikram Sambat Hindu calendar, and hence it is also called Vesak. In Nepal, which is considered the birth-country of Buddha, it is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar.

In China, Hong Kong and Korea, it is celebrated on the eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. In Nepal and neighboring South Asian and Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore), Buddha's birthday Vesak Day (韦塞节) is celebrated on the 15th day of 4th lunar month.

read more


What Do AM and PM Stand For?

12-hour clock at noon: 12 am or 12 pm?

Some countries, including the US, Canada, and Australia, use the 12-hour clock format including am and pm. What do these abbreviations mean? Is midnight am or pm?

The 12-hour system divides the 24 hours of a day into two periods lasting 12 hours each. The first 12-hour period is designated as am. It runs from midnight to noon. The second period, marked pm, covers the 12 hours from noon to midnight. The abbreviations am and pm derive from Latin:
  • AM = Ante meridiem: Before noon
  • PM = Post meridiem: After noon
Using numbers from 1 to 12, followed by am or pm, the 12-hour clock system identifies all 24 hours of the day. For example, 5 am is early in the morning, and 5 pm is late in the afternoon; 1 am is one hour after midnight, while 11 pm is one hour before midnight.


Man got wife to accept Mistress

Allow her to live in family home
Wife filed for divorce in February 2018 on the grounds that the husband had behaved in such a way that the wife could not reasonably be expected to live with him

A man who was married for some 30 years not only took a mistress when he got a new job, but also got her to live in the family home. In 2014, the man sought his then wife's acceptance of his mistress, and she reluctantly agreed to do so.

But in December 2017, she and their two grown-up sons packed up and left the matrimonial home. Two months later, she filed for divorce and an interim judgment was granted in June 2018 on the grounds that the husband had behaved in such a way that the wife could not reasonably be expected to live with him. "Such behaviour included the husband requesting the wife to accept his mistress into the family and into the matrimonial home, which the wife agreed to," noted Family Court District Judge Kathryn Thong in decision grounds for a ruling on the division of matrimonial assets and other ancillary matters.

"The husband claimed in these proceedings that the wife was happy with this arrangement and was surprised she had cited this as a reason for the divorce," she added in the grounds issued last month. The couple's two sons said in a deposition to the court that they had grudgingly accepted the mistress into the family home out of fear of their "harsh disciplinarian" father flying into a rage.


COVID-19: Stay At Home Singapore

COVID-19 Lockdown Laughs

Singapore urges calm after panic buying hits supermarkets
Singapore reports its first cases of local COVID-19 transmission
Singapore confirms cases of COVID-19 Virus


China’s Tianwen-1 spacecraft completes historic Mars landing

Update 26 Jul 2022: China launches Wentian module to Tiangong space station
China's first lab module for space station

China on Sunday launched Wentian, the first lab module of its space station. The new module will function both as a backup of the core module and as a powerful scientific experiment platform. The Wentian module is 17.9 meters long, has a maximum diameter of 4.2 meters and a takeoff mass of 23 tonnes, almost the size of a subway car in Beijing. It is the heaviest single-cabin active spacecraft in orbit in the world, according to Liu Gang, deputy chief designer of the China manned space program's space station system with the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).

The Wentian module consists of a work cabin, an airlock cabin and a resource cabin. The Long March-5B Y3 carrier rocket, carrying Wentian, blasted off from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on the coast of the southern island province of Hainan at 2:22 p.m. (Beijing Time), according to the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA). About 495 seconds later, Wentian separated from the rocket and entered the planned orbit. The launch is a complete success, the CMSA declared.

This is the 24th flight mission since the country's manned space program was approved and initiated. The construction of China's Tiangong space station is expected to be completed this year. It will then evolve from a single-module structure into a national space laboratory with three modules -- the core module Tianhe, and lab modules Wentian and Mengtian. The Tianhe module was launched in April 2021, and the Mengtian module is set to be launched in October this year.

China launches Tianhe module to Tiangong space station
Rendering of Tianhe core module with the robotic arm at docking position

Tianhe (Chinese: 天和; pinyin: Tiānhé; lit. 'Harmony of the Heavens'), officially the Tianhe core module (Chinese: 天和核心舱), is the first module to launch of the Tiangong space station. It was launched into orbit on 29 April 2021, as the first launch of the final phase of Tiangong program, part of the China Manned Space Program (Project 921).

Tianhe follows in the footsteps of Salyut, Skylab, Mir, International Space Station, Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2 space stations. It is the first module of a third-generation Chinese modular space station. Other examples of modular station projects include the Soviet/Russian Mir, Russian OPSEK, and the International Space Station. Operations will be controlled from the Beijing Aerospace Flight Control Center.

In 2018, a fullscale mockup of Tianhe was publicly presented at China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai. In October 2020, China selected 18 new astronauts ahead of the space station construction to participate in the country's space station project.

Why the China Mars rover’s landing site has geologists excited
China’s Mars rover Zhurong has yet to drive off its lander and start exploring.Credit: Xinhua/Alamy

Now that they know the general landing location of China’s Zhurong Mars rover, scientists are rushing to analyse satellite images and geological maps to pinpoint intriguing features. Of particular significance is a possible mud volcano — a type of landform that no Mars rover has visited before.

“We want to propose the plan for the rover,” says Xiao Long, a planetary geologist at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, who says scientists across China will now have the tantalizing opportunity to influence Zhurong’s journey. “A number of teams will be trying to plan out the traverse — where you would go in what time frame, to accomplish as many goals as you can in a 90-day mission,” adds Joseph Michalski, a planetary scientist at the University of Hong Kong.

Encased in a lander, the rover touched down shortly after 7 a.m. Beijing time on Saturday, 10 months after China’s Tianwen-1 mission left Earth. Until the touchdown, the potential landing zone — in a vast impact crater called Utopia Planitia — was thousands of kilometres across, meaning that scientists could only loosely finger sites of possible interest.


China Releases Rover’s First Photos After Mars Landing
An image captured by the Chinese rover Zhurong from the surface on Mars sent on Wednesday.Credit China National Space Administration, via Reuters

Four days after landing a spacecraft on Mars, China’s space agency released its first photographs from the red planet on Wednesday, announcing that the mission was going as planned.

The four-day wait for the images — one in color, one in black and white, as well as a pair of small video clips — had prompted speculation that something might have gone wrong with the landing on Saturday. When China’s space agency issued a statement in response to those concerns on Tuesday, urging patience, the response online was biting.

“Can’t you learn from NASA propaganda?” one user wrote beneath the statement, seeming to chide the agency with a comparison to NASA’s live broadcasts of its latest mission on Mars, which began in February.

The Tianwen-1 orbiter (below) and the capsule housing the lander and Zhurong rover

Tianwen-1 (TW-1; simplified Chinese: 天问; traditional Chinese: 天問; lit. Heavenly Questions) is an interplanetary mission by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to send a robotic spacecraft to Mars, consisting of an orbiter, deployable camera, lander and the Zhurong rover. The spacecraft, with a total mass of nearly five tons, is one of the heaviest probes launched to Mars and carries 13 scientific instruments.

The mission's scientific objectives include: investigation of Martian surface geology and internal structure, search for indications of current and past presence of water, and characterization of the space environment and the atmosphere of Mars. The mission was launched from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on 23 July 2020 on a Long March 5 heavy-lift launch vehicle. After seven months of transit through the inner solar system, the spacecraft entered Martian orbit on 10 February 2021. For the next three months the probe studied the target landing sites from a reconnaissance orbit. On 14 May 2021, the lander/rover portion of the mission successfully touched down on Mars, making China the third nation to both land softly on and establish communication from the Martian surface, after the Soviet Union and the United States. If the deployment of the rover is also successful, China would become only the second nation to accomplish this feat, after the United States, as well as the first nation to orbit, land and release a rover during its first mission to Mars.

The Tianwen-1 mission was the second of three Martian exploration missions launched during the July 2020 window, after the United Arab Emirates Space Agency’s Hope orbiter, and before NASA’s Mars 2020 mission, which landed the Perseverance rover with the attached Ingenuity helicopter drone.