7 nifty tricks every car owner should know

Every car owner should know these nifty tricks

Owning a car comes with many responsibilities. You need to pay extra taxes as well as making sure your car is in good enough condition to drive. Change the oil, check the tyre pressure and regularly bring it to a garage to get it checked. Yes, owning a car isn’t all fun and games. But besides maintaining what’s under the hood of the car, you should also regularly clean the interior and exterior of your car. And that’s where we come in! With these seven nifty tricks your car will shine like never before.

Were you familiar with these tricks already:
  • Clean the headlights
  • DIY Cleaner
  • Remove scratches
  • Tidy your car
  • Crumbs
  • Oil
  • Parking help


Health Benefits of Curry Leaves

Curry Leaves Benefits, Nutrition & Side Effects

Curry leaves are also called “Kadi Patta”. They are used in many Indian dishes. These leaves added warmth and a lovely aroma to the dishes. Fortunately, aside from culinary uses, they also have many health benefits. If you’re curious about these aromatic, lovely leaves, then read on more! In this article we talk about curry leaves benefits, their nutrition, and possible side effects.

Curry leaves are used for garnishing lots of dishes like Sambhar, dosa, etc. They are full of sweet flavor and aroma. Moreover, what is even better is that they are full of nutrients that can give your health a big boost. Keep reading to learn about the health benefits of curry leaves.

  • Fights Infections
  • Good For Respiratory Issues
  • Promotes Cardiac Health
  • Promotes Better Digestion
  • Improves Oral Health
  • Improved Vision
  • May Treat Diabetes
  • Heal wounds & Burns
  • Improved Liver Health
  • Improves Cognition
  • May Treat Anemia
  • Aids In Weight Loss

9 Benefits and Uses of Curry Leaves

Curry leaves are the foliage of the curry tree (Murraya koenigii). This tree is native to India, and its leaves are used for both medicinal and culinary applications. They’re highly aromatic and have a unique flavor with notes of citrus.

Curry leaves are not the same as curry powder, though they’re often added to this popular spice mixture and popularly used in cooking to add flavor to dishes, such as curries, rice dishes, and dals. Aside from being a versatile culinary herb, they offer an abundance of health benefits due to the powerful plant compounds they contain.

Here are 9 impressive benefits and uses of curry leaves:
  • Rich in powerful plant compounds - Curry leaves are packed with antioxidants that may protect your body by reducing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.
  • May reduce heart disease risk factors - Consuming curry leaves may benefit heart health by reducing heart disease risk factors, such as high cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • May have neuroprotective properties - Some research in animals suggests that curry leaf extract may protect against neurodegenerative diseases.
  • May have anticancer effects - Test-tube and animal research suggests that curry leaves may have powerful anticancer properties.
  • Beneficial for blood sugar control - Animal research has demonstrated that curry leaf extract may help reduce high blood sugar levels and protect against symptoms related to diabetes, including nerve pain and kidney damage.
  • May have pain-relieving properties - Research in rodents has shown that oral administration of curry extract significantly reduces induced pain.
  • Has anti-inflammatory effects - Curry leaves contain a wide array of anti-inflammatory compounds, and animal research has shown that curry leaf extract can help reduce inflammation-related genes and proteins.
  • Offers antibacterial properties - A test-tube study found that curry leaf extract inhibited the growth of potentially harmful bacteria, including Corynebacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Easy to add to your diet - Curry leaves are a versatile and tasty ingredient that can be used to add interest to a number of dishes.

Benefits Of Curry Leaves

Curry leaves are the curry tree foliage (Murraya koenigii). This tree is native to India, and for both medicinal and culinary purposes, its leaves are used. They are particularly aromatic and have a distinctive taste of citrus notes. In Indian households, curry leaves, the quintessential aromatic element, have countless nutritional and therapeutic benefits. Kadi Patta or Meetha Neem in Hindi, Kariveppilai in Tamil, or Karivempu in Malayalam are known by many vernacular names as this tree is indigenous to India, Srilanka, and many Southeast Asian countries. Although this traditional spice mixture is often added and popularly used in cooking to add flavor to dishes such as curries, rice dishes, and dals, curry leaves are not the same as curry powder. They deliver an array of health benefits due to the strong plant compounds they produce, apart from being a versatile culinary herb.

These high-speed deciduous shrubs are a compulsory part of Indian cooking where all the dishes for seasoning or garnishing start and end with it. Curry leaves are very rich in copper, minerals, calcium, phosphorous, fiber, carbohydrates, magnesium, and iron, which are important nutrients. Besides, curry leaves often contain different kinds of vitamins and amino acids. Depending on the intended use, the leaves can be dried or fried, and the fresh form is very common as well. Curry leaves are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin B2, calcium, and iron, apart from a heavy distinctive odor and pungent taste. It helps in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, morning sickness, and nausea by adding curry leaves to your meals. Often, curry leaves help flush out toxins and the fat content of the body.

  • Curry Leaves Helps in Lowers Cholesterol Level
  • Curry Leaves Boosts Digestion
  • Curry Leaves for Liver
  • Curry Leaves Hastens Hair Growth
  • Curry Leaves for Eye Health
  • Curry Leaves Eradicates Bacteria
  • Curry Leaves Promotes Weight Loss
  • Controls Side Effects
  • Curry Leaves for Blood Circulation
  • Anti Diabetic Properties in Curry Leaves
  • Curry Leaves helps to Treat Wounds

10 reasons you must use curry leaves in your food daily

Wondering why should you choose curry leaves in cooking? Curry leaves, known as kadi patta in Hindi, is a common cooking ingredient full of health benefits and multiple uses. It is added to various dishes to enhance their taste and health value.

Apart from culinary uses, curry leaves are also known for their curative properties and are used in Ayurveda as a natural treatment for various health problems like weight gain, blood pressure, indigestion, anemia etc. These aromatic leaves have nutrients like vitamins A, B, C, amino acids, calcium, fiber, protein, phosphorous and iron.

Here are the top 10 amazing health benefits of curry leaves and why you should add curry leaves to your food:
  • Health benefits of curry leaves
  • Relieves morning sickness
  • Cures diarrhoea
  • Heals wounds, skin eruptions and burns
  • Keeps anemia at bay
  • Helps in losing weight
  • Anti-diabetic properties
  • Good for the eyesight
  • FIghts cancer
  • Hair care

20 Incredible Benefits of Curry Leaves (Kadi Patta) for Hair and Health

Curry leaves, mostly known as kadi patta, are widely used in Indian cooking. These fragrant leaves not only add aroma to the food but they are also loaded with immense health benefits.

In this post, we shall be decoding some incredible benefits of curry leaves for your hair and health. Most of us know the culinary uses of these aromatic leaves; however, these leaves have been in use for centuries for their medicinal properties too.

Here are some kadi patta benefits or health benefits of curry leaves:
  • Help in Losing Weight
  • Help in Getting Rid of Free Radicals
  • Help in Lowering Cholesterol Levels
  • Help in Keeping Diabetes under Check
  • Help in Maintaining Gastrointestinal Health
  • Help in Relieving Morning Sickness
  • Help in Reducing Stress
  • Help in Healing Wounds
  • Help in Improving Eye-Health
  • Help in Congestion of Nose and Chest

Find out why you should eat curry leaves on an empty stomach

Most people discard curry leaves from their dish as if it’s just an unnecessary add on. This ingredient, widely used in South Indian cooking should, in fact, be consumed for various reasons. For one, it is blessed with vitamins A, B, C and E in varying proportions.

While it is a common saying that curry leaves helps hair re-growth, there are plenty of other changes that occur in the body when it’s digested. Curry leaves assist in digestion and fight anaemia. That’s because this herb is rich in folic acid and iron. However, other benefits of these miraculous leaves can be found when you eat it on an empty stomach. Before you do anything in the morning, try eating 4-5 raw curry leaves if you want to fight diabetes and grey hair. If this practice is continued regularly, blood sugar levels and premature greying will be fought in a powerful way. You will also be healing various eye disorders like cataract. It is known to improve vision as well.

Of course, eating raw curry leaves might be an unpleasant experience. The leaves are usually tinged with sourness and might not taste the best. However, consider including this in your diet. While this herb is loaded with nutrients our bodies are in need of, excess consumption of it could produce some side-effects. It is known to cause stomach upset, nausea and acidity in people. It’s best to eat more than 15 raw curry leaves at one ago.


Discovering the first strand of grey hair shoots up a thousand emotions of fear and pain in a gush. It shatters the heart to see your lusty lock beginning to lose its charm and if it happens in your twenties the tremor knows no bounds. It seems like the time of youth and zeal is approaching its end and what’s done cannot be undone now. The mind is baffled by a multitude of thoughts, whether to hit the salon, get the hair coloured or try some medications.

Why hair turns grey? Hair goes grey when the colour-producing cells in our body stop producing the required amount of melanin. Some of the common culprits are Poor nutrition, Genetic tendency, Changes in hormones, Environmental, Pollution, Stress, Smoking & Using the wrong hair products. A number of diseases like sinus infections, disorders of the thyroid and chronic colds can also cause the hair to grey prematurely. Thankfully there are some very effective home remedies not known to many. Our very homey curry leaves have the magic wand of turning grey hair black. Our grandma’s were so right; the key to health and beauty lies in the kitchen. Curry leaves are one of the extensively used secret formulae to uplift the aroma, flavour and look of any dish. But the hidden potential of this ingenious foliole makes it a highly valued item. Curry leaves are one of the best remedies to cure premature greying and retaining the lost pigment.

Curry leaf is a potent hair tonic that not only delays greying of hair but also protects the beautiful tresses from all its foes. It prevents hair fall, dandruff and itchy scalp. Curry leaves moisturize the scalp and encourage hair growth. Let’s check out how to apply curry leaves to extract its optimum value:
  • Grab a bunch of curry leaves from your garden and rinse them well in water.
  • Crush the dried curry leaves until into small pieces to make a fine powder.
  • Boil some coconut oil and add the powdered curry leaves to it.
  • Boil the fuse till powder turn black and allow it to cool at room temperature.
  • To get best results apply the oil at least twice a week and see your hair shaft become intensely dark and shiny.
  • Consuming curry juice can also help in preventing the hair from greying.

5 things that happen when you drink curry leaf tea daily

Curry leaves have been used since time immemorial to treat common health issues. Here are 5 curry leaf benefits that will make you want to embrace this tea right now!

Curry leaves or kaddi patta tea is extremely popular in south India, and is now becoming the hot favourite of many people across the country. Not only is the tea easy and quick to make, but it also offers plenty of benefits. Curry leaves are easily available, no matter where you live in the country. Apart from adding tadka with kaddi patta, make a cup of tea with this herb for yourself today because curry leaf benefits your whole body!

Here’s how this miraculous tea benefits you:

Drink Curry Leaves Tea Everyday To Improve Digestion, Prevent Cancer

Curry leaves or kadi patta is one of the most common ingredients used in Indian households, especially South India. Most of us use these leaves to add that amazing flavour and fragrance to our different preparations. However, do you know curry leaves can majorly transform your health too? Curry leaves have some amazing benefits for your health. An easy way of adding curry leaves for your health is by drinking curry leaf tea.

Do you know, curry leaf tea is an age-old remedy that is used majorly in South India to treat common health issues like constipation, diabetes, morning sickness, diarrhea, and high blood pressure? This natural tea can be prepared at home using a simple recipe. Drinking curry leaves tea is one of the best ways to fuel your body with the goodness of kadi patta or curry leaves.

Let's quickly take you through the health benefits of having this healthy tea everyday:
  • Free radicals in the body can lead to a lot of health problems like cancer. Curry leaves have antioxidants that prevent the cells of your body from free radical damage.
  • Drinking kadi patta tea can help you control the blood sugar level of your body. Consuming curry leaves helps in stimulating insulin-producing cells and this helps in keeping your diabetes in check.
  • Curry leaves help in dealing with digestive issues too. Curry leaves have digestive enzymes that improve your digestive health. The laxative properties of curry leaves also help in regulating the bowel movement. Drinking this tea can also help you in treating issues like gas and diarrhea.
  • Morning sickness is a common problem women face during pregnancy. Drinking curry leaves tea can help in providing relief from vomiting, nausea, and morning sickness.
  • Curry leaves have beta-carotene and protein which are great for your hair. This tea helps you keep hair problems like dandruff, hair thinning and roughness at bay.
  • Curry leaves help in burning the stubborn fat of your body. It also helps in getting rid of the harmful toxins from the body.
  • The aroma of the curry leaves works as a great stress reliever. Stress is a major issue behind common health problems. Drinking this tea helps you calm your body.
  • Curry leaves have vitamin A which is essential for your eyes. Curry leaves help you keep your eyes healthy.
  • Oxidation of cholesterol in the body leads to bad cholesterol which is harmful for your overall health. Curry leaves have antioxidants that reduce the oxidation of cholesterol. Drinking curry leaves tea helps you in controlling bad cholesterol.

Medicinal Uses, Therapeutic Benefits For Hair, Diabetes & Supplements of Curry Leaves

Curry Leaves, that quintessential aromatic ingredient, found in the Indian households have innumerable health and therapeutic benefits. This tree being indigenous to India, Srilanka and many South east Asian countries is known by several vernacular names such as Kadi Patta or Meetha Neem in Hindi, Kariveppilai in Tamil, Karivepaaku in Tamil or Karivempu in Malayalam. Derived from the Tamil word “Kari” meaning spicy, curry leaves are mentioned in ancient Tamil scriptures dating back to the 4th century AD for its amazing benefits and culinary significance.

Curry tree, being a sub-tropical tree growing to a height of 4-6 m and having a medium sized trunk goes by the botanical name Murraya koenigii. The aromatic curry leaves are seen in the form of pairs on the branches of the tree. The plant produces small white flowers which can pollinate themselves and it produces small, black, shiny semi-globose fruits with a single large seed. Though the fruits are fleshy and edible, neither the flower nor the fruits are used for culinary purposes.

Packed with a multitude of nutrients like carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, zinc, multivitamins and flavonoids, curry leaves are an arcade of health benefits. It is extensively used in the treatment of anemia, diabetes, indigestion, obesity, kidney problems, hair and skin problems. Benefits of Curry Leaves:
  • High on Fiber - Curry leaves are an excellent source of fiber. It improves our digestive health and regular bowel movements. It is helpful in treating diarrhea and nausea and also controls the blood glucose levels in the body.
  • Loaded with Proteins - Curry leaves have a high concentration of proteins which are considered to be the building blocks of the body. It is pivotal for the proper growth and development of the body and strengthens our immune system.
  • Powerhouse of Calcium - Calcium is widely known for its significance in improving bone health. Being a powerhouse of calcium, curry leaves are effective for strengthening the teeth and bones and preventing diseases like osteoporosis and osteomalacia.
  • Rich in Phosphorus - Being one of the major nutrients in curry leaves, phosphorus helps in cleansing the kidneys. It maintains a normal heartbeat, reduces painful muscle spasm after exercise and also strengthens the teeth and bones. At the cellular level, phosphorus is used for the growth and repair of cells and tissues.
  • Abundance of Essential Oils - Apart from the minerals and vitamins, curry leaves are a powerhouse to a number of volatile essential oils like α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, α-terpinene etc. These essential oils possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-dysenteric, carminative and digestive properties which are extremely beneficial for the hair, skin and oral health. It is also effective against hyperglycemia, high cholesterol and aids in digestion.

Curry tree

The curry tree, Murraya koenigii or Bergera koenigii, is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), and is native to Asia. The plant is also sometimes called sweet neem, though M. koenigii is in a different family to neem, Azadirachta indica, which is in the related family Meliaceae. Its leaves, known as curry leaves, are used in many dishes in the Indian subcontinent.

It is a small tree, growing 4–6 metres (13–20 ft)) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 11–21 leaflets, each leaflet 2–4 cm (3⁄4–1+1⁄2 in) long and 1–2 cm (1⁄2–3⁄4 in) broad. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black drupes containing a single, large viable seed. The berry pulp is edible, with a sweet flavor. The tree is native to the Indian subcontinent. Commercial plantations have been established in India, and more recently Australia. It grows best in well-drained soil that does not dry out, in areas with full sun or partial shade, preferably away from the wind. Growth is more robust when temperatures are at least 18 °C (64 °F)

The fresh leaves are an indispensable part of Indian cuisine and Indian traditional medicines. They are most widely used in southern and west coast Indian cooking, usually fried along with vegetable oil, mustard seeds and chopped onions in the first stage of the preparation. They are also used to make thoran, vada, rasam, and kadhi. The fresh leaves are valued as seasoning in the cuisines of South and Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, where the leaves are called sloek kontroap, the leaves are roasted and used as an ingredient in a soup, maju krueng. In Java, the leaves are often stewed to flavor gulai. Though available dried, the aroma and flavor is greatly inferior.[6] The oil can be extracted and used to make scented soaps. The leaves of Murraya koenigii are also used as a herb in Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine in which they are believed to possess anti-disease properties, but there is no high-quality clinical evidence for such effects. The seeds may be toxic to humans.



The Many Faces of Lorong 3 Geylang

One Last Walk Down Lorong 3 Geylang

A stillness fills the air as I turn onto Lorong 3 Geylang, which is quietly tucked away in between an industrial loading bay, a canal, and a HDB block. The only crackle of sound within earshot comes from an uncle riding his bicycle down the lane. I stop him for a moment to ask him about this place.

“A lot of artists used to come here to paint,” he says bluntly, taking a last look at the place before zooming off. Occasionally, I notice a painted strip of canvas among the debris on the floor, or hanging crooked off a dusty wall. The road makes the perfect set for a zombie apocalypse movie—doors and windows are barricaded, and debris from shoes to mattresses are scattered on the floor. I venture into the strips between the homes, at first taken back by the stench and crawling insects.

Seeing it in these conditions, I find it hard to believe it was once a thriving community, one I imagine looked vastly different in its prime. But that community came to an end on December 31 2020, when the 60-year-leases of the terrace houses of Lorong 3 Geylang expired, marking the first time Singapore has seen the government take back residential properties. Which is why I find myself here, to take one last look at the two hectare block of land before it gets permanently sealed off for redevelopment.

Lives less ordinary — How Geylang Lor 3 residents embrace the estate’s messy but quirky charms
80-year-old retire Yeo Chai’s parents bought the house for S$5,000 after the estate was rebuilt in 1961. Photo: Raj Nadarajan

Leaky roof extensions, shoddily patched walls and rubbish-strewn alleys are a common sight in Geylang Lorong 3, a world apart from the neater, well-manicured private estates elsewhere.

The 2ha estate is making history as Singapore’s first private residential plot to be returned to the State in three-and-a-half years, on the expiry of its 60-year lease.

In the last two decades, the 191 terrace houses, built in 1960 to rehome Chinese families displaced by a major kampung fire, have transformed from a largely working class neighbourhood to one populated mainly by foreign workers and temples. Only 33 owner-occupied units are left, 143 units are occupied by foreign workers and another 31 by places of worship, according to Singapore Land Authority (SLA).

Geylang Lorong 3: Home holds memories of hubby, 11 kids
Madam Yeo Ai (far left) packing up her possessions with the help of her daughter, Ms Joyce Koh, in the Geylang Lorong 3 house where she has lived for close to six decades. She is one of 37 home owners who will have to vacate their homes by Dec 31, when the estate's 60-year lease expires.ST PHOTO: KUA CHEE SIONG

Madam Yeo Ai was all of 23 in 1964 when the young seamstress fell in love with the boy next door.

It was a whirlwind romance - they got married in three months and moved into his house right across the street from her home.

What does the Geylang Lorong 3 leasehold expiry tell us about our 99-year HDB leases?
The 60-year leases of 191 terrace houses at Geylang Lorong 3 will run out on Dec. 31, 2020

Those living in the houses will be required to return their units to the state, the Singapore Land Authority announced in 2017.

This triggered a flurry of articles in The Straits Times (ST) over the years, serving as repeated reminders to owners and the public that these leases, which started in 1960, were finally coming to an end. It isn't just the owners of these leasehold properties who are affected, however.

As this marks the first time in Singapore that residential properties will be returned to the state, the handling of these leases' expiry will shed some light on what may happen when 99-year HDB leases come to an end in due time.

Expiring leases at Lorong 3 Geylang: Five owners have not found permanent housing; interim accommodation offered
Houses at Geylang Lorong 3. (Photo: Try Sutrisno Foo)

Five owners of units at Lorong 3 Geylang, whose leases are due to expire on Dec 31, have not found permanent housing, said the Singapore Land Authority (SLA) on Thursday (Dec 3).

These owners have been offered the option by the Housing and Development Board to rent a flat under the Interim Rental Housing scheme. SLA had announced in June 2017 that 191 terrace house units at Lorong 3 Geylang would return to the State upon expiry of their leases.

The land, which has a 60-year lease, will be redeveloped for public housing as part of the larger plan to rejuvenate Kallang, SLA said.

Most residents of Geylang Lor 3 terrace units have found new homes ahead of Dec 31 lease expiry deadline
The site is slated for a new public housing development as part of a larger plan to rejuvenate Kallang. ST PHOTO: KUA CHEE SIONG

Most of the landed property owners sitting on 60-year leasehold land located in Geylang Lorong 3 have found new homes, with the remaining few still considering their options.

The land will be returned to the State when their leases expire on Dec 31 this year for redevelopment.

There are a total of 191 terrace units located there, of which 149 are either vacant, or used as foreign workers' accommodations or for religious activities.



The Singapore Land Authority (SLA) announced today that the land occupied by 191 private terrace houses at Lorong 3 Geylang will return to the State when the current leases expire on 31 December 2020. The land is slated for future public housing.

Most of the current owners of the 191 terrace houses have moved out and are letting out their units to foreign workers and other occupants who use them for religious activities.

The SLA is committed to helping owners still occupying their units through the lease expiry process. Specifically, each owner will be assigned a dedicated SLA officer, who will help guide them through the lease expiry process over the next three and a half years.  For owner-occupants who need alternative housing, there are various existing housing schemes that will help them transit smoothly. These owner-occupants will not be left without options.

Geylang Isn’t What It Used to Be
What it’s like to live in Geylang’s red light district for a year?

While “family-friendly” isn’t something you’d normally use to describe Geylang, it’s a real estate area that’s not to be ignored. It remains one of the best priced, centrally located areas for tenants – it’s a mere six minute-drive from the CBD and packed with retail and eateries.

On top of that, the URA is no longer zoning residential units for Geylang, giving its existing units a high scarcity value – all of which are things prospective landlords or single tenants should consider.

Oh, and it’s gradually being cleaned up, too, if you know what we mean. But what’s it like to actually live in such a “notorious” area? To get a picture, 99.co spoke to one person who has rented and lived in Geylang for a year.


What’s the best student laptop?

We asked student
Photo by Amelia Holowaty Krales / The Verge The Dell XPS 13 is one of the best laptops for high school and college students

Shopping for a laptop can be stressful — doubly stressful if you or your children will be learning online for the first time. Kids of different ages have a range of different laptop use cases and different needs. And as the choices for best laptop and best Chromebook evolve, so do students’ needs. So I spoke to some experts on the subject: students themselves.

My recommendations here are meant to accommodate a variety of preferences and price ranges. But they’re a jumping-off point rather than an exhaustive list: every student is different. Before making a decision, you’ll want to make sure you read reviews and try out devices yourself if you can. I’ll do my best to keep this article up to date with items that are in stock.

For younger students, a touchscreen device is easier to use than a keyboard and touchpad, says Michelle Glogovac. Glogovac’s five-year-old son uses an iPad for Webex meetings with his kindergarten class. He’s gotten the hang of it; Glogovac says he’s already learned how to mute and unmute himself, “a skill that many adults aren’t familiar with.”


China's money printing, the world's first!

The Past of China's Money Printing
In the field of money printing and coinage, technology has always been the primary productive force

Banknote printing and coinage were once called "secrets second only to the atomic bomb." How did China's banknote printing and coinage industry become the world's number one?

The printing of money in the modern sense of China can be traced back to the late Qing Dynasty. With the development of the Westernization Movement, court officials brought back a new concept of foreign currency. In 1907, the Printing Bureau of the Du Branch (the predecessor of the Beijing Banknote Printing Factory, now the "Beijing Banknote Printing Company") was established and hired Hai Qu, a famous American steel engraving expert, to design and engrave paper banknotes for China.

The first gravure-printed "Daqing Bank Exchange Voucher" in Chinese history was made by Haiqu, which also created a new era in the history of China's banknote printing technology. Haiqu is a person who requires extremely fine carving business. It is said that in order to carve the head of the regent king Zaifeng, he put on the official uniform of the fourth grade and made a special trip to Shichahai to meet Zaifeng. A major contribution of Haiqu is to train the first generation of steel engraving technicians in my country, and lead them to independently design and print China's first set of steel intaglio banknotes.


China launches Wentian module to Tiangong space station

Update 1 Nov 2022: China launches third and final space station component
Mengtian, or “Celestial Dream,” joins Wentian as the second laboratory module for China’s permanent space station, collectively known as Tiangong

China on Monday launched the third and final module to complete its permanent space station, realizing a more than decade-long endeavor to maintain a constant crewed presence in orbit. Mengtian was blasted into space at 3:39 p.m. (3:39 a.m. ET) Monday from the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center in the southern island province of Hainan.

A large crowd of amateur photographers, space enthusiasts and assorted lookers-on watched the lift-off from an adjoining beach. Many waved Chinese flags and wore T-shirts emblazoned with the characters for China, reflecting the deep national pride invested in the space program and the technological progress it represents. Mengtian, or “Celestial Dream,” joins Wentian as the second laboratory module for the station, collectively known as Tiangong, or “Celestial Palace.” Both are connected to the Tianhe core module where the crew lives and works. Like its predecessors, Mengtian was launched aboard a Long March-5B Y4 carrier rocket — a member of China’s most powerful family of launch vehicles.

Mengtian was due to spend 13 hours in flight before reaching Tiangong which is populated by a crew of two male and one female astronauts, according to the China Manned Space Agency. Chen Dong, Cai Xuzhe and Liu Yang arrived in early June for a six-month stay on board, during which they will complete the station’s assembly, conduct space walks and carry out additional experiments. Following Mengtian’s arrival, an additional un-crewed Tianzhou cargo craft is due to dock with the station next month with another crewed mission scheduled for December, at which time crews may overlap as Tiangong has sufficient room to accommodate six astronauts.

Wentian's small mechanical arm completes in-orbit tests
Simulated image captured at Beijing Aerospace Control Center on July 25, 2022 shows that Wentian lab module has successfully docked with the front port of Tianhe core module combination

The small mechanical arm mounted with Wentian, the first lab module of China's space station, has successfully completed in-orbit tests, according to the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA).

With the support of the ground team, the small mechanical arm has completed a series of in-orbit function and performance tests. All indexes performed well, achieving expected results, said the CMSA. The weight and length of the small mechanical arm are about half that of the 10-meter-long large mechanical arm on the core module Tianhe. It is quite flexible and can perform operations with greater precision.

The Shenzhou-14 crew will, for the first time, be aided by the small mechanical arm to carry out extravehicular activities. The small arm can also be held with the large arm to form a combined arm that is capable of performing extravehicular operations with greater accuracy at a larger range. China on July 24 launched the Wentian lab module, which consists of a work cabin, an airlock cabin and a resource cabin.

Shenzhou-14 astronauts complete first extravehicular activities
Screen image captured at Beijing Aerospace Control Center on Sept. 1, 2022 shows Shenzhou-14 astronauts Chen Dong (Top), Liu Yang conducting extravehicular activities (EVAs) out of the space station lab module Wentian. China's Shenzhou-14 astronauts Chen Dong and Liu Yang successfully exited the space station lab module Wentian on Thursday to conduct EVAs, according to the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA)

China's astronauts Chen Dong and Liu Yang have completed their extravehicular activities (EVAs) and returned to the space station lab module Wentian, the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA) said on early hours of Friday.

This was the first time Chinese astronauts have used Wentian's airlock cabin, aided by its small mechanical arm, to carry out EVAs, said the CMSA, who has declared Friday's mission a complete success. The pair returned to the lab module at 0:33 a.m. (Beijing Time) after about six hours of EVAs, according to the CMSA. Under the coordination between space and Earth, and coordination with astronaut Cai Xuzhe inside the lab module, the pair completed a series of tasks, including the installation of the extended pump set of the Wentian lab module, lifting the lab module's panoramic camera, and the verification of capability for independent transfer and emergency return to the spacecraft.

The EVAs tested the cooperation ability between astronauts and the small mechanical arm, and tested the function and performance of Wentian's airlock cabin and support equipment related to EVAs, the CMSA said. China launched the Shenzhou-14 spaceship on June 5, sending three astronauts to its space station combination for a six-month mission.

China's space station lab module Mengtian arrives at launch site: 9 Aug 2022
Screen image captured at Beijing Aerospace Control Center on July 25, 2022 shows Shenzhou-14 astronaut Chen Dong opening the hatch door of Wentian lab module.  [Photo/Xinhua]

Mengtian, the second lab module of China's space station, has been shipped to the launch site in the southern island province of Hainan, the China Manned Space Agency said Tuesday.

The lab module will be assembled and tested as planned at the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site, said the agency.

The facilities and equipment at the launch site are in good condition. All the systems involved in the mission are undergoing orderly preparations, said the agency.

China's first lab module for space station

China on Sunday launched Wentian, the first lab module of its space station. The new module will function both as a backup of the core module and as a powerful scientific experiment platform. The Wentian module is 17.9 meters long, has a maximum diameter of 4.2 meters and a takeoff mass of 23 tonnes, almost the size of a subway car in Beijing. It is the heaviest single-cabin active spacecraft in orbit in the world, according to Liu Gang, deputy chief designer of the China manned space program's space station system with the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).

The Wentian module consists of a work cabin, an airlock cabin and a resource cabin. The Long March-5B Y3 carrier rocket, carrying Wentian, blasted off from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on the coast of the southern island province of Hainan at 2:22 p.m. (Beijing Time), according to the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA). About 495 seconds later, Wentian separated from the rocket and entered the planned orbit. The launch is a complete success, the CMSA declared.

This is the 24th flight mission since the country's manned space program was approved and initiated. The construction of China's Tiangong space station is expected to be completed this year. It will then evolve from a single-module structure into a national space laboratory with three modules -- the core module Tianhe, and lab modules Wentian and Mengtian. The Tianhe module was launched in April 2021, and the Mengtian module is set to be launched in October this year.

China launches second space station module, Wentian
A Long March-5B Y3 rocket, carrying the Wentian lab module for China's space station under construction, takes off from Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site in Hainan province, China July 24, 2022. China Daily via REUTERS

China on Sunday launched the second of three modules to its permanent space station, in one of the final missions needed to complete the orbiting outpost by year's end.

A live feed on state broadcaster CCTV showed the 23-tonne Wentian ("Quest for the Heavens") laboratory module launching on the back of China's most powerful rocket, the Long March 5B, at 2:22 p.m. (0622 GMT) from the Wenchang Space Launch Center on the southern island of Hainan. Space agency staff, seen on the live feed observing the progress of the launch from a control room, cheered and applauded when the Wentian separated from the rocket about 10 minutes after the launch.

The launch was "a complete success", CCTV reported shortly after. China began constructing the space station in April 2021 with the launch of the Tianhe module, the main living quarters, in the first of 11 crewed and uncrewed missions in the undertaking. The Wentian lab module, 17.9 metres (59 feet) long, will be where astronauts can carry out scientific experiments, along with the other lab module yet to be launched - Mengtian ("Dreaming of the Heavens").

Chang Zheng 5B launches Wentian Laboratory Module

China has launched the Wentian Laboratory Cabin Module on Sunday, July 24 at 06:22 UTC out of the Wenchang Space Launch Site in China. The module is one of two planned for launch this year to China’s Tiangong space station, with the second being the Mengtian module which is slated to launch in October. Both modules will launch on China’s most powerful rocket currently available, the Chang Zheng 5B (CZ-5B), and will target the low Earth orbit (LEO) of the Tiangong space station, which is in a 390 km altitude, 41.58° inclination orbit. Both will dock to the Tianhe core module of the station, which was launched in April 2021.

Wentian (“Quest for the Heavens”) is a laboratory cabin module (LCM), and one of the three major modules of the Chinese Space Station. It will not only provide science space for the station, but also additional navigation capabilities, avionics, propulsion, and orientation control. The module is 17.9 meters long with a diameter of 4.2 meters. It is about 22 tons in mass and contains pressurized space. It will host multiple scientific research facilities including a Life and Ecology Rack, a Biotechnology Rack, an Advanced Aerospace Technology Rack, a Cryogenic Storage Rack, and a facility to study varying gravity. It also includes more payload racks for future, planned science instruments. Wentian also has the capability to host science experiments outside of the module to study different influences on different kinds of probes, including cosmic ray, space environment, and solar wind research.

On the side of the module, two 30-meter-long solar arrays will be used to power the station and module. The exact capabilities of the two solar panels are unknown, as are details of the Wentian module. What is known is that the module will have an airlock system, which will aid the station for future spacewalks. It also includes a second mechanical arm and additional crew cabins to support more people living on the station. The module will initially dock with the axial port of the Tianhe core module of the station. After that, the station’s robotic arm will move the module to the desired radial port. This is necessary as China opted to simplify some of the Tianhe module’s docking posts. This resulted in the ports for Wentian and Mengtian not having any active docking systems. This type of process was used previously with Russia’s MIR space station.

Chinese space station nears completion as laboratory module successfully docks
Large crowds of space enthusiasts watching watched China's launch of the Wentian lab module from tropical Hainan Island on a hot Sunday afternoon

China successfully docked a second laboratory module to its under-construction space station, the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA) said Monday, as the country takes a step closer to completing its orbital outpost by the end of the year.

The Wentian module was launched atop a Long March 5B rocket from Hainan Island at 2:22 p.m. local time on Sunday. Wentian, China's largest ever spacecraft weighing 23 metric tons, is equipped with four scientific cabinets to conduct ecological and biotechnological experiments under varying gravity conditions. It also features a robotic arm for external experiments and an additional airlock for spacewalks.

The docking marks the penultimate phase in the construction of China's ambitious three-module Tiangong space station project, which is slated to finish construction by late 2022. Construction of the space station began in April last year, with the launch of the Tianhe module -- the station's main living quarters. In October, China is expected to launch a second laboratory module, known as Mengtian. The two laboratory modules will link-up to form a T-shaped structure, with Tianhe in the center.

China launches Wentian laboratory module to join Tiangong space station
The Wentian lab module was launched on a Long March 5B carrier rocket from Wenchang. (Li Gang: Xinhua via AP)

China is one step closer to completing its permanent orbiting space station, with the successful launch of a new laboratory module. The 23-tonne module, named Wentian, or "Quest for the Heavens", was launched on Sunday from the Wenchang Space Launch Site on Hainan Island in China's south. Amateur photographers and space enthusiasts watched as it lifted off on the Long March 5B remote 3 rocket to join the Tiangong (Heavenly Palace) space station.

According to the official Xinhua news agency, it spent roughly eight minutes in flight before entering orbit and docking at the space station. Astronauts will carry out scientific experiments on the 17.9-metre long Wentian module, which will also serve as short-term living quarters during crew rotations. It features an airlock cabin that will be the main exit-entry point for extra-vehicular activities when the station is completed.

The final lab module Mengtian, which means "Dreaming of the Heavens", is expected to be launched in October. In 2003 China became the third country to launch an astronaut into orbit on its own accord, after the former Soviet Union and the US. China started constructing the station in space in April 2021, with the launch of the main living quarters, in the first of 11 crewed and uncrewed missions.

China launches 2nd space station module to support science experiments
A Long March-5B Y3 rocket carrying China's space station lab module Wentian blasts off from Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on July 24, 2022 in Wenchang, Hainan Province of China. (Image credit: VCG/VCG via Getty Images) 

Wentian docked to the Tianhe module of China's Tiangong space station on Sunday (July 24) at 3:15 p.m. EDT (1913 GMT), according to a statement(opens in new tab) from China's space agency.

China is set to add a new compartment to its space station following the launch of the Wentian module early on Sunday. Wentian was sent on its way to orbit atop a Long March 5B heavy-lift rocket that blasted off at 2:25 a.m. EDT (0625 GMT or 2:25 p.m Beijing time) on July 24 from the Wenchang spaceport on the southern island of Hainan. The 58.7-foot-long (17.9 meters) module will soon match the orbit of Tianhe, China's first space station module, which launched in April 2021. Wentian is expected to rendezvous and dock with a port attached to Tianhe later on Sunday.

Wentian, which literally means "quest for the heavens," is the second of three modules planned for launch by China. A third, named Mengtian, is scheduled to launch in October and will complete the T-shaped Tiangong space station. Including a Shenzhou crew spacecraft and Tianzhou cargo vessel docked at the station, the completed Tiangong will be around 20% as massive as the International Space Station (ISS), which has a mass of about 460 tons. 

China successfully launches Wentian lab module to its space station

China successfully launched its space station lab module Wentian, the largest spacecraft ever developed by the country, into orbit on Sunday afternoon. The Long March-5B Y3 rocket, carrying Wentian (which means "quest for the heavens"), blasted off at 2:22 p.m. Beijing Time from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site in south China's Hainan Province.

About eight minutes later, the lab module separated from the carrier rocket and entered its preset orbit. The China Manned Space Agency (CMS) declared the launch mission a complete success. On July 17, the Tianzhou-3 cargo craft undocked from Tianhe, leaving its front docking port for the upcoming Wentian lab module. The Shenzhou-14 crew watched the launch of the Wentian in orbit.

With a length of 17.9 meters, a maximum diameter of 4.2 meters and a takeoff weight of 23 tonnes, the Wentian module is the largest and heaviest spacecraft China has developed. It has the same astronaut living facilities as the Tianhe core module, including three sleeping areas, a toilet and a kitchen. The lab module will provide a bigger platform for scientific experiments in space. It is mainly for space life science research. The module is equipped with laboratory cabinets for life ecology, biotechnology and variable gravity science.

China successfully launches Wentian module as space station nears completion
A Long March 5B rocket with the Wentian module takes off from Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site. Photo by Hou Yu/China News Service via Getty Images

China successfully launched its second module, called Wentian, to the Tiangong space station early Sunday morning (via SpaceNews). Wentian took off aboard a Long March 5B rocket from the Wenchang Space Launch Site in Hainan, China at 2:22AM ET (2:22PM local), docking at the Tiangong space station about 13 hours later at 3:13PM ET (3:13AM local).

The Wentian module contains equipment that allows the Chinese astronauts, also known as taikonauts, to perform various scientific experiments during their time on the station. As noted by The New York Times, the additional module will also provide three extra spaces to sleep, as well as another airlock that crewmembers can use to conduct spacewalks.

In June, China sent the three-person Shenzhou 14 crew to Tiangong to prepare for Wentian’s arrival. Mengtian, the station’s third and final lab module, is set to launch on a Long March 5B in October. This will complete the Tiangong space station, forming a T-shaped structure once the final module has docked.

Wait Begins for Falling 23-Ton Rocket Booster After China Space Station Launch

Another big Chinese rocket launched to space on Sunday at 2:22 p.m. Beijing time, and once again, no one knows where or when it will come down. It will be a replay of two earlier launches of the same rocket, the Long March 5B, which is one of the largest currently in use.

For about a week after launch, the world’s watchers of space debris will be tracking the 10-story, 23-ton rocket booster as wisps of air friction slowly pull it back down. The chance that it will strike anyone on Earth is low but significantly higher than what many space experts consider acceptable. The powerful rocket was designed specifically to launch pieces of China’s Tiangong space station.

The latest mission lifted Wentian, a laboratory module that will expand the station’s scientific research capabilities. It will also add three more spaces for astronauts to sleep and another airlock for them to conduct spacewalks. Completing and operating the space station is described in state media broadcasts as important to China’s national prestige. But the country has taken some damage to its reputation during earlier flights of the rocket.

Wentian module

Wentian (simplified Chinese: 问天; traditional Chinese: 問天; pinyin: Wèn Tiān; lit. 'Quest for the Heavens'), officially the Wentian laboratory cabin module (Chinese: 问天实验舱), is a major module of the Tiangong space station. It is the first Laboratory Cabin Module launched, and the first module to extend the existing Tianhe core module of the station. It was launched into orbit on 24 July 2022, successfully docking with Tianhe nearly 13 hours later at 19:13 UTC on the same day. On 25 July 2022 at 02:03 UTC, the crew of Shenzhou 14 opened the hatch and entered the module for the first time.

The Wentian laboratory module provides additional navigation avionics, propulsion and orientation control as backup functions for the Tianhe Core Module (TCM). It also provides a pressurized environment for researchers to conduct science experiments in freefall or zero gravity which could not be conducted on Earth for more than a few minutes. Experiments can also be placed on the outside of the modules, for exposure to the space environment, cosmic rays, vacuum, and solar winds. The axial port of Wentian is fitted with rendezvous equipment and first docked to the axial port of Tianhe. A mechanical arm dubbed, as Indexing robotic arm, looking a sort of Lyappa arm used on the Mir space station will then move the module to a radial port of the CCM. It is different from Lyappa as it works on a different mechanism. Lyappa arm is needed to control the pitch of the spacecraft and redocking in a different plane. But the indexing robot arm where docking is needed in the same plane. In addition to this arm used for docking relocation, the Chinarm on Tianhe module can also be used as a backup.

In addition to this, it also carries a small 5 m (16 ft) long robotic arm like the Chinarm as a supplemental to that arm. It will be used for manipulating extravehicular payloads and its positioning accuracy is 5 times better than the Chinarm. Wentian in total has 22 standard adaptors (silver squares) to host the payloads.Wentian’s arm will primarily be used to transfer experiments and other hardware outside the station. There is also an adapter by which this arm can be grappled by the Chinarm it to work a single robotic arm like Orbiter Servicing Arm with Canadarms. Electrical power is provided by two steerable solar power arrays, which use photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity. Energy is stored to power the station when it passes into the Earth's shadow. Resupply ships will replenish fuel for LCM 1 for station-keeping, to counter the effects of atmospheric drag.

China space station: What is the Tiangong?
China launched a 23-tonne research lab module to its newly built space station Tiangong on Sunday 24 July. The lab Wentian, or "Quest for the Heavens", is expected to carry out biological and life science research

Tiangong space station, or "Heavenly Palace", is China's new permanent space station. The country has previously launched two temporary trial space stations, named as Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.

The new lab Wentian is the second of three key modules to Tiangong. The first key module Tianhe - which contains living quarters for crew members - was sent into orbit in April 2021. The other key module, Mengtian science lab, is due to be launched by the end of 2022.

China has big ambitions for Tiangong. The station will have its own power, propulsion, life support systems and living quarters. It is also designed to provide refuelling power to China's new space telescope, called Xuntian, which will fly close to the space station next year.

China's Plan for Space Exploration

China is only the third country in history to have put both astronauts into space and to build a space station, after the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the US.

China hopes Tiangong will replace the International Space Station (ISS), which is due to be decommissioned in 2031. Chinese astronauts are currently excluded from the ISS because US law bans its space agency, Nasa, from sharing its data with China.

China's ambitions do not end there. A few years from now it wants to take samples from asteroids near the Earth. By 2030, it aims to have put its first astronauts on the Moon, and to have sent probes to collect samples from Mars and Jupiter.

China launches Tianhe module to Tiangong space station
Rendering of Tianhe core module with the robotic arm at docking position

Tianhe (Chinese: 天和; pinyin: Tiānhé; lit. 'Harmony of the Heavens'), officially the Tianhe core module (Chinese: 天和核心舱), is the first module to launch of the Tiangong space station. It was launched into orbit on 29 April 2021, as the first launch of the final phase of Tiangong program, part of the China Manned Space Program (Project 921).

Tianhe follows in the footsteps of Salyut, Skylab, Mir, International Space Station, Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2 space stations. It is the first module of a third-generation Chinese modular space station. Other examples of modular station projects include the Soviet/Russian Mir, Russian OPSEK, and the International Space Station. Operations will be controlled from the Beijing Aerospace Flight Control Center.

In 2018, a fullscale mockup of Tianhe was publicly presented at China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai. In October 2020, China selected 18 new astronauts ahead of the space station construction to participate in the country's space station project.