Monday, 14 May 2018

Peanut and Tree Nut Allergies

Peanut allergy

Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy to peanuts. It is different from tree nut allergies. Physical symptoms of allergic reaction can include itchiness, hives, swelling, eczema, sneezing, asthma, abdominal pain, drop in blood pressure, diarrhea, and cardiac arrest. Anaphylaxis may occur.

It is due to a type I hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system in susceptible individuals. The allergy is recognized "as one of the most severe food allergies due to its prevalence, persistency, and potential severity of allergic reaction." Prevention may be partly achieved through early introduction of peanuts to the diets of pregnant women and babies. The principal treatment for anaphylaxis is epinephrine as an injection.

In the United States, peanut allergy is present in 0.6% of the population. It is a common cause of food-related fatal and near-fatal allergic reactions. The declaration of the presence of trace amounts of allergens in foods is not mandatory in any country, with the exception of Brazil

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Tree nut allergy

A tree nut allergy is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from tree nuts and edible tree seeds causing an overreaction of the immune system which may lead to severe physical symptoms. Tree nuts include, but are not limited to, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, chestnuts, coconuts, filberts/hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pistachios, pine nuts, shea nuts and walnuts.

Management is by avoiding eating the causal nuts or or foods that contain them among their ingredients, and a prompt treatment if there is an accidental ingestion. Total avoidance is complicated because the declaration of the presence of trace amounts of allergens in foods is not mandatory in any country, with the exception of Brazil.

Tree nut allergies are distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes, whereas a tree nut is a hard-shelled nut.

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Peanut, tree nut and seed allergy

Allergic reactions to peanut, tree nuts or seeds can sometimes be severe. Symptoms of food allergy typically include hives (urticaria), swelling around the mouth, and vomiting, usually within 30 minutes of eating a food. Other symptoms include stomach pains, or diarrhoea.

Symptoms of severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) affect our breathing and/or our heart and may include any of the following: difficult/noisy breathing, swelling of tongue, swelling/tightness in throat, difficulty talking/hoarse voice, wheeze or persistent cough, persistent dizziness and/or collapse, and becoming pale and floppy in young children. Information on anaphylaxis is available on the ASCIA website.

Deaths from food allergy are rare in Australia, but mild, moderate and even severe allergic reactions are common. The most common foods causing life threatening anaphylaxis are peanuts, tree nuts and shellfish.

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Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy

Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergies are some of most common food allergies in both children and adults. These allergies tend to cause severe reactions and usually persist over time.

This topic reviews various aspects of management of peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy, including instructions about avoidance of these allergens, education in the proper management of accidental exposures, and monitoring for resolution of the allergy. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy are discussed separately. General discussions of food allergy are presented separately in appropriate topic reviews. (See "Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy: Clinical features" and "Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy: Diagnosis".)

The management of food allergy in the specific settings of schools and camps is discussed in detail separately. (See "Food allergy in schools and camps".)

related: Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy: Diagnosis

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Is Peanut Allergy Related to Tree Nut Allergies?

It's not necessarily the case that someone with peanut allergy will have a tree nut allergy. Some people with tree nut allergies can eat peanuts and vice versa.

Although we call the peanut a "nut," technically it is not a nut. It is a legume, or a legume fruit, that grows in a pod. Some other well-known legumes are peas, beans, lentils and soy. Legumes grow on a plant that is the ground. Nuts are different because they grow on trees and have a hard shell, such as cashews, pine nuts, pecans, pistachios, walnuts, and even coconut.

Why are people with peanut allergies told to stay away from tree nuts? One of the reasons why those who have a peanut allergy are told to avoid tree nuts is because many people have both allergies. According to the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology, 25% to 50% of those allergic to peanuts also have allergies to tree nuts. Rather than having an allergy test for each kind of tree nut, it is usually more convenient to avoid all peanuts and nuts.

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You just finished your food allergy testing at the Arizona Asthma & Allergy Institute to discover you have an allergy to nuts, specifically peanuts or tree nuts. So let’s start with some specific definitions so this doesn’t “drive you nuts”.

  • WHAT IS A PEANUT? - The name “peanut” is somewhat misleading because peanuts are actually part of the legume family, which includes foods such as beans, peas, lentils, and chickpeas. Fortunately, the majority of people with a peanut allergy are not allergic to other members of the legume family.
  • WHAT IS A TREE NUT? - Tree nuts are actually dried fruit and include over 20 different types of nuts. Tree nuts you might be familiar with are walnuts, pecans, almonds, pine nuts, cashews, and coconuts. Walnuts and cashews usually cause the most allergic reactions. There is a strong possibility of cross–reactivity among various families of tree nuts so people who are allergic to one type of tree nut usually are advised to avoid all tree nuts.

Peanut and tree nut allergies have a tendency to be strongly associated with severe reactions so identifying processed foods that contain any nuts is extremely important. If diagnosed with a nut allergy you must become a very diligent LABEL READER! Any food sold in the USA must state on the label if it contains peanuts or tree nuts.

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Has science cracked the peanut allergy?
Amid the alarming rise in food allergies, two new treatments are on the verge of approval. David Crow reports on how they work, and why our food has turned against us

Once a regular fixture, movie night had become a rarity in the Cipriano household of late. Giovanni had started high school a few weeks earlier and been given extra homework, while his mum, Georgina, was working two jobs after separating from his dad. But one evening in October 2013 they found the time to retire to the TV room at their home in Long Island, New York, where she put out a bowl of cookies and pretzels to snack on while they watched the film.

After taking a few bites, the 14-year-old started to feel unwell. “Mum, I think this has got peanuts in it,” she recalls him saying. She thought he must be mistaken. She had already checked the allergy warning on the label, which cautioned that the mixture contained tree nuts but made no mention of the peanuts to which her son was severely allergic.

The sequence of events that subsequently unfolded is so tragic, so full of ill fate, that I wonder how Georgina can bear to recount it. “It’s difficult to talk about what happened,” she says. “But it’s important to tell his story. I’m going to be his voice.”

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Scientists devise new, more accurate peanut allergy test
A vendor sells peanuts at the Voi market, 20 km (12.5 miles) south of Hanoi April 17, 2008

British scientists have developed a far more accurate blood test to diagnose peanut allergy, offering a better way to monitor a significant food hazard.

Peanuts are the most common cause of fatal food-induced anaphylaxis, or severe allergic reaction, and allergy cases among children have risen sharply in recent years. Britain’s Food Standards Agency estimates up to one in 55 children have a peanut allergy.

In contrast to existing skin-prick and other blood tests that produce a large number of false positive results, the new diagnostic has 98 percent specificity, researchers from the Medical Research Council (MARC) reported on Thursday.

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New peanut allergy blood test developed
Scientists have developed a blood test for peanut allergies that they say is less risky and more cost-efficient than other tests

The skin-prick test used currently can result in people being diagnosed with an allergy when they do not have one.

And the new test could be used after inconclusive skin-prick tests instead of tests that involve eating nuts.

The Medical Research Council team says new the test could be adapted to test for other food allergies.

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Guidelines to Help Prevent Peanut Allergy

he number of children with peanut allergy has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Parents may be particularly concerned about peanut allergy because most food-related serious allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction that includes breathing difficulties as well as fatal allergic reactions, are associated with peanuts.

Because peanut allergy is common and can be quite serious, many parents want guidelines for how to best prevent allergies to peanuts. Many research studies over the past 20 years have focused on peanut allergy and how best to prevent it. This research has been translated into guidelines for families that are mostly focused on what time in a child’s life is safest to introduce peanuts into the diet. With new research emerging, these guidelines have been updated to represent the best available evidence from research. An article in this month’s JAMA Pediatrics reviews these guidelines and the research studies that informed the guidelines.

Old Guidelines - Initial guidelines about peanut allergies emerged approximately 16 years ago and focused on children who were considered at risk for food allergies. This included children who had close family members with a strong history of allergic disease. At that time, the guidelines suggested avoiding eating peanuts during pregnancy and avoiding any exposure to peanuts for children until age 3 years.

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Mum shares how her son got cured of peanut allergy in Singapore!

Parents of children with food allergies constantly live in fear. What if your child ate something he was allergic to? What if you were not around?

Ingestion of just a tiny amount of allergen can cause effects ranging from a mild rash, to a life threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis. A reaction usually occurs within seconds or minutes of exposure to the allergen, and in severe cases , it can lead to death if left untreated.

Says mum Syafini Sjuib, about her son Caydin Sujith, "When I came to know of Cayden's peanut allergy, I made sure I read the ingredients on food packaging before buying them. When dining out, I would scan through the menu and sometimes even confirm with the waiter whether the food was peanut free. When my son was younger, I would always carry food from home when we went out."

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SIA and the Peanut Allergy

A nut-free special meal does not contain peanuts and tree nuts (including almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, walnuts, pecans and macadamias), and their derivatives.

We’ll make every reasonable effort to accommodate your request for a nut-free meal. However, we’re unable to provide a nut-free cabin or guarantee an allergy-free environment on board. It’s not unusual for other passengers on our flights to be served meals and snacks containing nuts or their derivatives. We also have no control over passengers consuming their own snacks or meals on board, which may contain nuts or their derivatives.

We request that you take every necessary precaution, bearing in mind the risk of exposure. If you have any concerns about your fitness to travel, we encourage you to share this information and discuss your travel plans with your doctor.

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Full Coverage:
Nut and Peanut Allergy - KidsHealth
How bad is a peanut allergy?
Food Allergies: Frequently Asked Questions - Food Allergy Research
How long does allergic reaction to peanuts last?
Peanut allergy - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
How do you know if you re allergic to peanuts?
Peanut Allergy | Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
What is the allergic reaction to peanuts?
Can You Grow Out Of Allergies | Outgrow Peanut Allergy
Can you grow out of a peanut allergy?
Is it possible to be allergic to peanuts but not peanut butter?
Can You Outgrow Your Allergies? | Allergies Go Away
Can a peanut allergy go away?
Can a peanut allergy get worse over time?
Peanut allergy - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
What is the treatment for peanut allergies?
When Can Babies Have Peanut Butter: A Guide - Healthline
When can you give peanut butter to a baby?
Do genes play a role in peanut allergies? New study suggests yes
Are peanut allergies hereditary?
Other Food Allergens | Food Allergy Research & Education
Can you be allergic to seeds?
Can You be Allergic to Sesame, Poppy, and Other Seeds?
Can you eat seeds if you have a nut allergy?
Southwest Allergy - Seed Allergy
Is it possible to be allergic to pumpkin seeds?
Understanding Sesame Allergies: Symptoms, Treatment
What are the symptoms of sesame seed allergy?
Are pumpkin seeds part of the nut family?
Peanut, tree nut and seed allergy - Australasian Society of Clinical
All About Sesame, Other Seed Allergies - Allergic Living
Other Food Allergens | Food Allergy Research & Education
Seed Allergy
Seeds - Allergenic Foods and their Allergens
Nuts and Seeds - Food Allergy Information
Cross reactivity of seed allergens - AAAAI
Southwest Allergy - Seed Allergy
Allergy to Tree Nuts and Edible Seeds - eatright Store
Understanding Sesame Allergies: Symptoms, Treatment, and More
seed allergy, sesame allergy - Allergy NZ
Sesame seed allergy symptoms by
Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy: Management - UpToDate
Peanut, tree nut, and seed allergy: Clinical features - UpToDate
What You Should Know About Sesame Seed Allergies
Sesame Seed Allergy - North West Allergy Network
Allergy to sunflower seed and sunflower butter as proposed vehicle
Poppy seed allergy: a case report and review of the literature. - NCBI
Allergy to Pumpkin Seeds - Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sesame Allergy: The facts - Anaphylaxis Campaign
Sesame Seed Allergy - Kids With Food Allergies
Tree Nut Allergy | Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
What are the symptoms of a nut allergy?
Peanut Allergy | Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Peanut Allergy | Food Allergy Research & Education
Peanut Allergy - Kids With Food Allergies
Peanut Allergy: Get Facts on Treatment and Symptoms
Peanut Allergy: Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction - WebMD
Scientists devise new, more accurate peanut allergy test | Reuters
Mum Shares How Her Son Got Cured Of Peanut Allergy In Spore
Nut and Peanut Allergy - KidsHealth
Peanut allergy - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Peanut - Allergy & Anaphylaxis Australia
Identifying peanut allergies cheaper and easier with new test
Nut and Peanut Allergy | Anaphylaxis | Patient
New peanut allergy blood test developed - BBC News
Peanut Allergy: The Facts- Anaphylaxis Campaign
Peanut allergies may soon be treated with a vaccine
Have Americans Gone Nuts Over Nut Allergies? - TIME
School Peanut Allergy Safety - Parents Magazine
Peanut, tree nut and seed allergy - Australasian Society of Clinical
Peanut allergy test could prevent huge over-diagnosis of condition
Promising peanut allergy vaccine misdirects the immune system
What it's like to travel with a nut allergy | The Independent
Factors Associated with the Development of Peanut Allergy in ...
Peanut-allergic and soy-allergic patients can use asthma inhalers
Peanut allergens: an overview. - NCBI
New Peanut Allergy Test Created That Cuts Out 'Risky' Food Challenge
Peanut Allergy Information | Online Resource Guide
A Peanut Allergy Test That Is Both Safe and Accurate
Peanut allergy? Treatment working and could soon be open to all kids
peanut and treenut allergy - Allergy NZ
Peanut Allergy . Arthur | PBS KIDS
Guidelines for Children with Peanut Allergy | For Patients
Kids Health Info : Peanut and tree nut allergy
Nut/Peanut Allergy in Paris - Paris Forum - TripAdvisor
Peanut allergy: Emerging concepts and approaches for an apparent
AR101 for Peanut Allergy | Aimmune | CODIT Oral Immunotherapy
Has science cracked the peanut allergy? - Financial Times
Allergy - Peanut allergy and peanut free diet | Sydney Children's
SIA stops serving peanuts as snacks on all flights, but other
Singapore Airlines stops serving peanuts as snacks, here's which
SIA stops serving peanuts as snacks on all flights, but
Singapore Airlines stops serving peanuts as snacks on its flights
SIA to replace peanuts with peas & crackers in Economy Class
Singapore Airlines stops serving peanuts as snacks in all cabin
Singapore Airlines stops serving peanuts as snacks on its flights
SIA stops serving peanuts as snacks on all flights, but other
Singapore Airlines to review serving of nuts on flights after toddler
Serving of nuts on SIA flights being reviewed after boy suffers allergic
Parents of toddler who had severe allergic reaction on board SIA urge
TODAYonline | Child's peanut allergy sparks review of SIA's inflight
Mum of local boy who had allergic reaction to peanuts on plane
SIA Shouldn't Ban Nuts Because Some People Are Allergic To Them
Toddler suffers severe peanut allergy reaction on Singapore
Toddler Has Severe Peanut Allergy On Singapore Airlines Flight
SIA reviewing serving of nuts on flights following toddler's allergic
Singapore Airlines reviews nut policy after toddler scare - BBC